Auditory Cortex – located in the temporal lobe, it is the part of the brain responsible for the processing and comprehension of sound.
Auditory Processing – the neurological functions associated with the perception and understanding of sound. Auditory Processing is what allows us to interpret spoken word and distinguish important auditory signals from noise.
Axon – specialized projections extending out like antennae that carry information away from the neuron (nerve cell).
Brain Stem – connects the brain to the spinal cord and plays a vital role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness. All information to-and-from our body passes through the brain stem, and vice versa. The brain stem plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also regulates the central nervous system, and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle.
Broca’s – an area of neurons in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe responsible for the control of speech.
Cerebellum – located just above the brain stem and toward the back of the brain, it is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone.
Cognition – the process of gaining knowledge and using that knowledge for comprehension and problem solving.
Cognitive Reserve – our brain’s overall ability to withstand disease and decline. It is protection or a buffer that is created by active engagement in stimulating intellectual, social and physical activities.
Corpus Collosum – a wide flat bundle of neural fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
Declarative Memory – memory that can be consciously recalled such as facts and events. Its two divisions include episodic memory which is the storage of personal experience and semantic memory which is the storage of factual information.
Dendrites – a bunch of thin filaments extending out like antennae that carry information to the neuron through electrical impulses.
Executive Control Function – is a term that refers to the capacity to reflect on one’s situation, to evaluate what is working and what is not, to formulate plans of action, and to carry out such plans successfully. Executive Control includes the capacity to learn from our mistakes so that we don’t make the same ones over and over again. Primarily associated with the prefrontal cortex, it controls the following skills: planning, initiation, time-awareness, self-correction and problem solving.
fMRI – (functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery) a relatively new procedure that uses MR imaging to measure the tiny metabolic changes that take place in an active part of the brain.
Frontal Lobe – located at the anterior portion of the brain, it is considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior.
Glial Cells – protect, support, and provide nutrients to neurons
Gray Matter – is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, axons, glial cells and capillaries. The grey-brown color comes from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies
Hippocampus – the part of the brain that is involved in forming, organizing and storing memory. It is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories. The hippocampus is a horseshoe shaped paired structure, with one hippocampus located in the left-brain hemisphere and the other in the right hemisphere. The hippocampus acts as a memory indexer by sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary.